A qui appartient le canard enchainé

The seedjustice.seedjustice.org Centenary Lectures

The Centenary en train de lire was a series ns ten major auditeur lectures, delivered de distinguished haut-parleurs at universities across good Britain et Ireland. Their full text is published here as a lasting record du the Association"s Centenary year ns 2018.

Vous lisez ce: A qui appartient le canard enchainé

Contents • Preface de Barbara Burns • Imprint pageLectures par Thomas Doherty • Elaine Treharne • Edwin Williamson • Alberto Manguel • Manfred Engel • Marina warner • Susan Bassnett • nom de garçon Cronin • alain Viala




La galanterie française

Professor alain Viala

University du Oxford

Ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues, say thanks to you for coming. I am very honoured venir be invited venir deliver this lecture and I would like à thank thé seedjustice.seedjustice.org warmly à la this. I must asking you to indulge my very negative English et my strong french accent. Cible I would additionally like venir take this opportunity à share a serious français concern v you: la france is today under pressure, indigenous a large et thorny bundle du serious issues, and of a an extremely varied nature. Amongst these, et greater than prof Macron’s lack du popularity or prof Melenchon’s aggressiveness, greater also than brexit (hard jaune in surname only), over there is — best at auto heart of the mass ns problems — the “Galanterie française”. Parce que le more 보다 a year now, every month, also every principale there is a new episode ns the “Querelle aux la galanterie française”: thé Quarrel of french Gallantry.

Nine month ago, a newspaper, les Monde released a manifesto signed de a hundreds people, mainly women, of whom auto most renowned was Catherine Deneuve. This manifeste was a protest against the “Me too” movement, and a defence ns “la galanterie française”. Over there were instant responses et polemics, and Le Canard enchaîné published a cartoon entitled la Galanterie cette fini! (Fig. 1). Ce shows a woman and a masculin in front du a elevator door, et the mrs says: “Get conditions météorologiques first, amie pig, jaune you’ll comprendre a slap in the face!”. Just a few days ago, ns Monde asked the following question: “Is cette still possible, in a le café or restaurant, for a homme to leave auto banquette à a mrs without risking being referred to as a stalker?” A question which attracts attention even on this side du the Channel, ont just a month ago the Telegraph started covering the debate.

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Fig. 1. Le canard enchainé takes up auto Quarrel

So: quel is the sortir here? how did this ended up being a sort of national quarrel? je shall try à set out part facts conditions météorologiques the history de galanterie in france (the subject of my forthcoming book).1 The histoire could be summarized de the complying with question: comment did année ideal became an ordeal?

In auto beginning

In the beginning, over there was année end: the end, in France, of a century of civil wars. From auto mid-16th century, with auto Wars du Religion, to thé mid-17th and the rebellion versus absolutism called la Fronde, la france had suffered a longue period of troubles. Thé monarchy looked to nouveau social élites in order venir manage the administrative services de the kingdom. They can not be from auto old aristocracy, oui the main aristocratic families were affiliated in these rebellions, no one from auto Catholic Church, pour the very same reason. Oui a an outcome some part de the nobility and the bourgeoisie, specifically from je vous demande pardon was referred to as “la Robe” — lawyers et judges — to be promoted.

To be a good member of this new élite, une needed to show personal characteristics — to have personal merit fairly than just année old name jaune huge wealth. These nouveau managers de the nation had neither army nor spiritual backgrounds: therefore, they were selected due to the fact that they were educated as well oui reliable. Et the hatchet given à that high quality was galant homme: all the dictionaries de this temps give as the life definition du galant masculin “a reputable man”. A way to montrer evidence du their education was their great behaviour in social life. Life neither in castles nor in monasteries, marqué in towns, lock were city people: therefore, they essential urbanity, particularly in your time du leisure. In français urbanité way politeness, cible since ce has a pedantic sound à it, année echo du the Latin urbanitas, toutes les personnes also used the new word galanterie.

Integrity et sociability are auto two base of galanterie. That was the life part de the ideal. A satisfied sociability means style et wit, et that involves année ability à enjoy arts. That was the second part du this ideal. And, due to the fact that social tons involved both men et women, a special attention was offered to the politeness of men toward women. This as well was part of the ideal du the “galant homme”. Et the “galante dame” was, symmetrically, a woman through virtue, wit et distinction. This best was no a simple dress code, no one a list du polite manners, marqué a saint or, if you prefer, ont Madeleine ns Scudéry says, “un air”, with an element du “je-ne-sais-quoi”.

Inside this framework, si a romantic to work developed, cette was very considérable to take time to ensure, conditions météorologiques both sides, that ce was a actual feeling, a extensive one. Madeleine du Scudéry symbolized such a actual love, with mutual esteem and respect, as an expedition through utopia — mapping it out in La atlas de Tendre (Fig. 2). Amour is a longue journey, native the life encounter — nouvelle Amitié — to a solid feeling of Tendre-sur-Estime jaune Tendre-sur-Reconnaissance. Thé shortest chemin was pur “Inclination”, or sexual attraction, but that leads to auto perilous sea, the “Mer dangereuse”. Et so thé Utopia of the carte de Tendre is année idealised la peinture of common love and respect.

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Fig. 2. Atlas de Tendre, Madeleine ns Scudéry, Clélie, 1654

The original venues parce que le this “galante” culture were the salons du Paris, marqué in the 1650s the saint was embraced too de the bas of louis XIV. Louis was himself a “galant homme”; ns mean this rather literally — in a ballet devoted to les Galanterie du temps (1655) the king danced the character of “Le Galant”. Over there were bas events officially designated oui “Fêtes galantes”. They offered auto regime année opportunity to exhibit an ideal du pleasant leisure, which means an ideal of peace, to counterbalance the divers side du Louis XIV"s image: the is, the military one. In short, then, galanterie came to be the principal style of french élites parce que le at least a century à follow, et it established itself as a myth.

That myth gave rise venir many poems, plays, novels, operas, and paintings. Thé most famed painter to be Watteau, thé most famous composer, compiler Rameau; among auto writers, there to be Madeleine aux Scudéry jaune Mme de La Fayette; auto majority ns Molière’s work can be seen ont galanterie, and then there is Marivaux, et so on. The style spread commonly throughout Europe: in Germany, parce que le instance, frederick II was a passionate admirer of Watteau’s painting. There were of arttaserse discussions about it, cible the fact is that this français ideal became internationally famous.

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Fig. 3. Jean-Antoine Watteau, ns Pèlerinage jusqu’à l"île ns Cythère (1717)

Nevertheless, some toutes les personnes were implacably opposed to these new ideals. Highly traditional Catholics, such ont the Jansenists, rejected auto ideal of “divertissement mondain”. Misogynists were also hostile: Boileau, parce que le instance, in his de lart poétique of 1674, accused galant writers ns making “Brutus galant rang Caton dameret”. Et the enemies du Louis xiv took this opportunity à criticize him as “galant”. As you know, in French, an adjective changes its an interpretation according venir where ce is put, antérieur à or after thé noun. In this case, “galant homme” means a perfect reliable, educated and polite man; but “homme galant” method a seducer. As you can imagine, ce was also worse pour women. And so this range of enemies ns galanterie gave thé word likewise a pejorete sense.2 si a homme was full du polite attentions to a women, ce was said hey was trying à seduce her. Resistance to the gallant deserve to be summarized, in a word, de saying that thé gallant myth came to be Janus-faced. Et this continued to be the case throughout the vieille Régime.

From the Revolution to the bourgeois repression

From the beginning de the Revolution, in 1789, every outside sign de the ancien Régime was suppressed. During the Revolutionary period, galanterie disappeared nearly entirely, and as a modèle of société behaviour cette was strong attacked by writers. Fabre d’Eglantine — one of the creators ns the nouveau Republican calendar — considered gallantry ont a form de corruption, and his jouer Philinte (1791) rewrites Molière’s Misanthrope according to auto views de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The gallant maquette of bas writing was attacked de Germaine aux Staël in du la literature (1800).

The pictorial style ns the vacance galantes mettre with particular disdain, jaune even aggression. Watteau’s masterpiece, les pélerinage jusquà Cythère, the model of its whole genre, continued à hang in the design classroom of the Ecole des beau Arts: marqué now cette was censoriously attacked passant par Jacques-Louis David, et some of the students habitually threw pellets ns bread at it. Seeing this, a curator took the poor point down and put ce in the attic du the Louvre: ce was not shown again till 1816. To artists de this new age, auto bourgeoisie which had overthrown the monarchy must be devoted to entreprise with dignity, not venir leisure through games and fantasy. And so thé artistic style associated v galanterie need to be condemned as frivolous and artificial.

To summarize thé result: in 1812, a moralist choose Jouy could write in his Ermite ns la autoroutes d’Antin that “Il nai pas a plus ns galanterie, plus de politesse, la Révolution a tué tout cela” — over there is non more galanterie, auto Revolution killed it. The chœurs was already: “La galanterie il est fini”…. End a period de 25 years, the bourgeois’ doxa had actually repressed this saint very efficiently.

But oui everyone knows, ghosts oui a tendency à leave their attics, et whatever the société superego represses, over there are always desires à make cette in this barrier. In fact, throughout the 19th century, français gallantry was a sort de prismatic object, with 3 sides. Each offers a various use et a different meaning du the words galant et galanterie.

The greatest of these was auto bourgeois anti-galant ideology. This was année obsession. Ce was due, in super part, to the fact that paris was – if ns may speak plainly — full du prostitutes. It was referred to as “le marché aux putains”, or “le bordel ns l’Europe”. Bourgees morality ended up being obsessed, haunted, de these shameful examples de the “femme galante”, in a sort of moral complex. Any kind of behaviour through a trace ns seduction was immediately denounced, with a very pejorative connotation, as galant.

But thé popular classer had a quite different complex, et one in i m sorry galant had a more positif sense. After Napoléon’s defeat, parisien was occupied par Russian, Prussian and even britanique soldiers, et one way in which auto people ns the ville coped with auto trauma du defeat was à mock your occupiers. Renowned engravings shown Russian, Prussian jaune English men oui rude, jaune stupid, or oui brutally trying à catch a french woman. Thé same engravings comparison this with the galanterie française, a modèle of elegance, charm and delicacy. Below is the origin ns galanterie ont a national superiority complex, a way to evoke the ghost of old français distinction et so venir compensate parce que le defeat. This patriotic photo of galanterie was gradually adopted even by the lower middle class, at a temps when la france was confronted de Germany, as we shall watch soon; and galanterie was likewise a way venir mimic auto old aristocratic distinction.

The 3rd side de this prism came from, as I put cette earlier, auto power du the ghosts in thé attic: Watteau et his gallant creative style. A handful du young creative artists began à draw figurants from ce once more. This group centred around two poets, Théophile Gautier and Gérard aux Nerval. Nerval called cette “La Bohême galante”, and it published a un journal entitled L’artiste. Members de the coporation, groupe acted ont advisors parce que le rich capitalists building arts collections (most notably the Hertford family, that developed the Wallace circuits électoraux on montrer today). Those who were painters once again painted fêtes galantes. Those that were poets wrote poems in a gallant style. Et Nerval explains how important this sacrés was. Not as a frivolous pastime, but:

Hors aux Paris, aux ses jetée stériles et aux ses vaines agitation, jeme ressource dans ma terre maternelle, ns Valois, d’un province où j’ai été augmenté et qu’on appel téléphonique spécialement “la France”. Le Voyage jusqu’à Cythère aux Watteau a été concevait dans esquive brumes transparentes und colorées ns ce pays.

In act this, these artists expressed deux attitudes at once. In terms of internationale politics, they were exhibiting a intérieur myth. In this period, Germany was obtaining unity et power, et France to be obsessed de that boosting influence. Germany had a tradition of considering the art as the expressions of the soul ns its nation, and artists choose Nerval responded that the gallant sacrés is thé proper expressions of french grace, distinction et finesse — just the opposite of the slow, heavy et loudly sentimentale German spirit. And in terms ns France"s inner politics, members of la Bohême galante might mock the mauvais taste of the bourgees unable to appreciate Watteau, et could in order to lampoon bourgeoes social et political power. This tendency had that is acme in a circuits électoraux of poems published by Verlaine et entitled fêtes galantes (1869), ont we shall see.

Thus, what had to be a Janus-faced myth was currently a prism encountering three ways: parce que le the bourgeois, auto disturbing face à face of the “femme galante”; pour the people, the mask of politeness et charm; et for thé artistic élite, auto sign de distinction. And so, nous enter thé period well-known in la france as...

The beau Epoque

The disaster du the Franco-Prussian War ns 1870 was followed by a good revival ns nationalist ideology, et in particular, auto galant myth to be revived. The fantaisie of a delicate et elegant spirit returned. Seulement a minute ago, ns mentioned Verlaine’s vacances galantes. This was originally poetry pour the happy few. Inspired by the atmosphere du Watteau’s painting, Verlaine aims to provide a feeling ns charm et melancholy. Love becomes a destin of jeu of flirtation. à la instance, auto beginning of the tons poem (Clair aux lune):

Votre âme est un paysage choisiQue marche à pied charmant masque et bergamasquesJouant de luth, und dansant et quasiTristes sous leur déguisements fantasques.

Despite that is defeat, la france enjoyed a period ns prosperity after 1870 — a period seulement un later called “la beau Epoque”, cible in which culture could flourish. Composers such ont Claude perturbation or Gabriel écart created from cette the genre of “mélodie galante”.

Claude perturbation plays his own Clair ns lune, inspired de Verlaine"s poem de the same name

They took extinction from Verlaine’s verses to relier melodies which ended up being a national genre: thé idea to be to lopposé this français delicacy to auto German lieder. And in this way, gallant style expanded indigenous the petit sphere ns the aesthete to a broader audience.

Voir plus: Les Plus Belles Plages Ile Maurice #Mauritius #Ilemaurice, Plus Belles Plage Maurice

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Fig. 4. The 24th execution (!) ns the Baronne Staffe"s Usages de Monde: Règles ns Savoir-Vivre.

A revival de galanterie additionally aided part bourgeois theoreticians du social sapin — writers of treatises ns good manners, who wanted venir resist auto rise ns feminism, and all claims ns equality between men and women. The most famous de these writers were les Baronne du Staffe and la Baronne d’Orval. Today, they space left out in auto garbage de the history of ideas, marqué in their day lock had millions of readers. Et they explained auto relationship between men et women oui follows. First, lock excluded love: quel is de nombreux is marriage, and marriage is not an affair ns love. Second: in présent business, mrs is not equal to sa husband. But, third, in Staffe"s words: “la femmes est ns reine au mettre en ordre de aperçus mondain et malgré la action salique, fort la galanterie qui appartient ns tout temps de Français” — mrs is a queen in social life, follow to the galanterie i m sorry is a proper français tradition. What this method really is that women do not oui political rights, cible can get power par being charming. Men have power, cible women ont seduction. And these theoreticians were likewise nationalists, explaining that france is the best place in the world to provide such a feminine influence.

If you comparer this through the initial Utopia de the atlas de Tendre, elle see thé difference. Thé ideal of mutual respect has drifted into a theory ns seduction. Mutual seduction: men oui the énergie in the economics and politics, et desire women, while females desire to be desired and gain power indirectly. The is a an extremely brief summary, marqué I hope exactement enough.

And so, from now on, the gallant was an image de superiority; année image de a tradition of respect and wit; and an image de mutually seductive behaviour. Auto myth is no plus long Janus-faced, cible multi-faced: cette is no longer a list of acts, marqué is a way to characterise a totality variety ns behaviours. These images can even be contradictory: galanterie can, pour one person, mean only a banal form of “drague”, ns chatting personnes up, while autre person means it to signify a respectful société relationship. As such — just to take stock nous the methodological former — galanterie is a an excellent example ns the social processes ns qualification. Ns mean: the social act of qualifying. Qualifying behaviours et images is an travail of classification. And, at thé same time, venir classify the people who exhibit this behaviours et use these images. Qualification is a social et political operation, the locus ns a social and political contest: thé uses du galanterie different according venir the social groups associated in them, et their specific interests.

And so ns would like provide a view of this in la france today.

The present: ghosts et battles

In la france today, among thé various ways of using this word et of conceive and practice galanterie, je think there room two principale tendencies.

The first affronter of thé myth aujourdhui is a nouveau use ns the old heritage as a way to suggest how great is France. Nearly every année there is année exhibition de “Fêtes galantes” paintings. At thé moment, if you aller to the Louvre lens you can visit the pompously called “Amour”, v a substantial – et interesting je think — partie entitled: “La relation: ns galanterie”. If you aller to thé Château du Versailles next June, et if tu can bought a ticket, tu can attend a one-of-a-kind event, ont you deserve to every year, dubbed a “Fête galante”. Tickets expense at least 150 euros, et are much more than 400 for the most expensive. These events are an extremely selective: seulement un 350 personnes are allowed. Et they ont to buy jaune rent apparel imitating 17th jaune 18th century bas style. Cette is a way à recreate auto atmosphere du the “fêtes galantes” throughout the ancien Régime, a viewing of the ghosts de ancient la france (Fig. 5).

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Fig. 5. Fête galante jusqu’à Versailles, 2018

These ticket are largely sold venir rich french bourgeois and to American jaune Chinese tourists. This is galanterie ont a means de distinction, and love is no the henn goal.

And toutes les personnes who an intricate exterior signs de distinction and wealth can also buy a dress prefer this une (Fig. 6), designed de Alessandro Michele, the concepteur of Gucci, who offers the la peinture of the atlas de Tendre:

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Fig. 6. Alessandro Michele, for Gucci. Mode week, milano 2016

This dress brings out the idea du the old French tradition of distinction, du “produit aux luxe”, et of >Galanterie oui a high mission of it. Marqué at the same time, there is a seconde sign inside. Michele claimed that atlas de Tendre was parce que le him “a relocating topography ns desire”. And this becomes perfectly visible when the dress has actually been bought par Michelle Obama (Fig. 7). Once Michelle Obama wore this dress, ce became not seulement un a sign de distinction but also a sign that a woman has actually chosen venir make visible that desire have to be respectful; that à be desirable method also venir be respectable et respected.

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Fig. 7. Michelle Obama wearing atlas de Tendre dress conditions météorologiques the Ellen la télé show, 2016

But on the divers hand, there are additionally debates about auto inheritance of the theory ns seduction. This theory has actually been criticized par Simone ns Beauvoir in Le deuxième sexe (1949): she said that galanterie was, for women, an illusion to compensate à la their lack ns equality. And a signification littérale later the famous feminist activist Gisèle Halimi, in her livre La causer des femmes (1973), asked venir eradicate this illusion: “Il faut éliminer purement und simplement les galanterie, ça forme aux domination maxculine” — nous must eradicate galanterie ont a form du male domination.

Some french feminist theoreticians took a different tack. The first was probably Julia Kristeva in a file entitled Le conscient galant, in 1991. She said the women can accept an asymmetrical relationship in between men and women because the illusion provided de the seduction is precious. And people like Mona Ozouf, in esquive mots des femmes. Une singularité française, and, mainly, Claude Habib, in her livre Galanterie français (2006), followed auto same path. They to speak they are feminist, cible with a middle view ns it. Lock are, over all, ont you have the right to see from thé titles of elle books, anxious venir defend a specific french model. They are linked with toutes les personnes such as alain Finkielkraut, et published chapters in his livre Qu’est-ce que ns France? (2007). They exprimer a very anxious french desire venir protect thé “exception culturel française” — amongst which would be a “féminisme parce que le française”.

It comes oui no surprendre that some feminists, especially Joan W. Scott, radically criticized together a “féminisme for française”. à sum up sa view, scott explains the this “théorie ns la séduction” can actually it is in French, cible is not feminist. This quarrel had actually various episodes, assorted battles, specifically when ce was the issue of “le foulard islamique” and again throughout “l’affaire Strauss-Khan” in 2011. It deeply divides french intellectuals. This quarrel is toujours in progress, as we have seen at auto very beginning du this lecture.

And beyond.

I would certainly like à finish, then, passant par looking at a really different form ns the gallant myth — je vous demande pardon might be dubbed a radical échanger of our alloue of view. This change has to be created de the british artist Yinka Shonibare. Shonibare showed in 2007 année art système deau called Le chantiers d’amour (Fig. 8) in the musée du accostage Branly in paris — currently known, complying with a decision ns Président Chirac, ont the “Musée des art Premiers”.

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Fig. 8. Yinka Shonibare, thé Pursuit, in The jardin of love, Paris, musée du quai Braly, 2007

Shonibare choose up his inspiration from a work created passant par Fragonard in the 1770s, a group of three paints titled auto progress du love.

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Fig. 9. Jean-Honoré Fragonard, esquive Progrès aux l"amour: le rendez-vous (c. 1771).

Shonibare’s embobinages consists du a grouper of life-sized mannequins in a garden, a sort ns labyrinthine garden. The mannequins are pull on in lover clothes, imitating Fragonard paintings, cible these clothing are excellent not with silk or satin, cible with batik cotton. And, they space headless. In act this, Shonibare raffinement four things at once. First, that the dresses are choose those of slaves during the colonie period. Second, the these slaves have a existence in français history. But, third, not seul in français history, because colonialism was an international business: batik was originally developed in the Dutch east Indies, climate the bateau carried ce to Africa, whereby they took slaves to the West Indies et America. Et fourth, Shonibare tells us that the des questions was less around love, and more around leisure. And leisure is the time throughout which rich Europeans wasted the riches provided de colonial imperialism and slavery.

Choosing Fragonard was année acute way venir mobilise the français myth de galanterie, i m sorry is mostly a myth du leisure. The myth de a happy leisure, in a locus amoenus — a place parce que le happiness: in this case, the garden — v plenty ns time dedicated à pleasure, to games, to art et love. Due to the fact that the musées du poison Branly is specialized to art from Asia, amérique and Africa, the is, from the colonie world, placing this embobinages there has been a way à re-interrogate European mindsets towards other parts ns the world. This action modifies auto focus et scope ns the galanterie myth. It brings the end the point that galanterie is not seulement un about manners, arts or love, but about leisure. And the focus, here, is no plus long only around Frenchness cible about a stage in civilization history.

From a français myth venir a global question: this might be de nouveau way venir summarize auto journey of galanterie in thé last Century.

And ce could be thé last indigenous here. At least à la me. Because when some people active in these quarrels speak “galanterie cest fini”, I do not know. Et because I matin not here to express my own opinion. I oui asked to à faire so de several journalists. Ma answer is always: that’s no interesting. I matin not here venir say si galanterie is a an excellent thing jaune a bad one. I un m just trying à observe comment it had various clashing definitions. And these clashes are always produced passant par differences of opinions et interest in between different social groups. Parce que le instance, today, the people in favour of “la galanterie française” et “le féminisme for française” belong venir a category ns institutional state intellectuals. Ns see them oui defending the intérieur myth indigenous this position. Cible they room not representative of tous French people — also when castle pretend venir define quel is France, et what is à be French.

This instance brings out how galanterie might be année example of récolte symbols ont objects de manipulations, ideological acte and also fights. Galanterie et its background from the initiale ideal to thé present ordeal seems to me an instructive des boites study of that. Ssocial sapin is full of such processes. Et I think for tous of us who room working in the Humanities, observing those processes, defining and redefining categories et values, can be année important part ns our job.

Voir plus: Préfecture De Nanterre Titre De Séjour (Residency Card) In France

And so I oui been particularly happy to be invited venir speak here, et I thank amie very much à la your attention et your indulgent and gallant understanding.

Notes

1Two books, in fact: la galanterie, ns mythologie français (Paris: Editions de Seuil, 2019), et Le cas galant (Paris: esquive dossiers du Grihl, online).↩︎

2See, à la instance, the éléments “Galant” in thé Encyclopédie: there are, in fact, three articles, which provide clear evidence of this lot of meaning.↩︎