Le Pape Jean-Paul Ii

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Born:May 18, 1920Poland...(Show more)Died:April 2, 2005 (aged 84)Vatican City...(Show more)Title / Office:pope (1978-2005)...(Show more)Notable Works:“Slavorum Apostoli”...(Show more)

John Paul ii was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. He travelled abroad extensively in année effort venir promote higher understanding in between countries and religions, and he campaigned against political oppression, violence, et materialism. He survived an assassination effort in 1981.

John pôle II’s exclusive conversations with Polish and Soviet leaders contributed to thé peaceful end de the Soviet routine in east Europe, and his worldwide outreach brought greater visibility to the church. Hey engaged in acts du interfaith reconciliation with Judaism et Islam, promulgated a nouveau catechism (1992), et canonized nearly 500 saints.

John Paul ii was the life globally oriented pope, et he boosted the global prestige ns the papacy. His emphasis nous religious et national liberty was unprecedented. He also central control over Catholic education institutions and maintained classic church positions nous gender and sexual issues.

St. Homme Paul II, Latin Johannes Paulus, d’origine name Karol Józef Wojtyła, (born peut faire 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland—died April 2, 2005, Vatican City; beatified may 1, 2011; canonized April 27, 2014; feast day October 22), bishop ns Rome and head of the roman Catholic Church (1978–2005), the sapin non-Italian pope in 455 years and the sapin from a Slavic country. His pontificate ns more 보다 26 year was auto third longest in history. Ont part of his effort to promote better understanding in between nations and between religions, cette undertook numerous trips abroad, traveling frais greater distances than had tous other popes combined, et he prolonged his affecter beyond auto church de campaigning against political oppression et criticizing the materialism ns the West. He also issued several unprecedented apologies à groups that historically had actually been wronged par Catholics, many notably Jews et Muslims. His unabashed polish nationalism and his emphasis nous nonviolent political activism aided thé Solidarity déménageur in communist Poland in thé 1980s et ultimately added to thé peaceful dissolution ns the Soviet union in 1991. An ext generally, john Paul offered his influence among Catholics and throughout auto world to advance auto recognition du human dignity et to deter thé use de violence. His centralized style du church governance, however, dismayed some members de the clergy, who found ce autocratic et stifling. Cette failed venir reverse an overall decrease in the numbers of priests and nuns, and his classic interpretations de church teachings nous personal et sexual morality alienated some segments du the laity.

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Early life et influences

Wojtyła’s childhood coincided with the seulement un period of freedom the Poland would know between 1772 and 1989: the two decades in between Marshal Józef Piłsudski’s defeat ns the Soviet rouge Army in 1920 et the German invasion in 1939. Wojtyła thus prospered up experiencing denchères freedom but also understanding its vulnerability. Although Wadowice, a town ns about 8,000 Catholics and 2,000 Jews, lay seul 15 milles (24 km) native the a venir site de Auschwitz, a Nazi fatality camp, there was apparently little anti-Semitism in auto town avant the war. One du Wojtyła’s fermé boyhood friends to be a son du the dirigeants of Wadowice’s Jewish community.

Wojtyła’s father, Karol senior, was a lieutenant in auto Polish army. His mother, Emilia Kaczorowska, passed away when he was eight years old; his brother, Edmund, that had come to be a physician, died less than four years later. Wojtyła was an outgoing youth, though always with a major side. Hey excelled in academics and dramatics, played feat (soccer), and, under his father’s guidance, live a disciplined first of routine religious observance. He regularly assisted Father Kazimierz Figlewicz, his confessor et first teacher in Catholicism, in Wadowice’s henchmen church, i beg your pardon was next door to the Wojtyła family’s tiny apartment.

After graduating from secondary school as valedictorian, Wojtyła relocated with his father venir Kraków, where he attended the Jagiellonian University. His recherche ended abruptly as soon as Nazi Germany got into Poland nous September 1, 1939. In thé months the followed, Jews oui well as non-Jewish cultural and political leaders, including professors et priests, were killed jaune deported venir concentration camps par the Nazis, who considered the Slavs année inferior race.

Wojtyła and his dad fled with thousands to thé east cible soon returned after learning that auto Russians had also invaded Poland. Back in Kraków, Wojtyła continued his études in candestine classes. Parce que le the next four years, in order venir avoid arrest and deportation, hey worked in a factory owned passant par Solvay, a chemistry firm that the nazus considered essential à their war effort. Wojtyła was hence the seul pope, at the very least in contemporary times, to have been a labourer.

During these years Wojtyła began to write nationalistic plays, et he joined thé Rhapsodic Theatre, an underground resistance coporation, groupe that aimed to sustain polish culture and morale through surprise readings de poetry and drama. Through janvier Tyranowski, a keep going who conducted a youth ministry à la the local church, Wojtyła was presented to the teachings de St. John of thé Cross, a Carmelite mystic who organized that redemption can be gained through suffering and a “spirituality de abandonment.” Tyranowski’s instance helped to convince Wojtyła that thé church, even more than a renewed polishing theatre, might improve thé world. Wojtyła’s confessor continued à be his childhood mentor, Figlewicz, who had actually transferred to Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.

Decision à join the priesthood

In February 1941 Wojtyła changed from work une day venir discover the his dad had died alone; cette prayed par the body tous night. By the autumn ns 1942 cette had decided to enter thé priesthood. For two years, while still working at thé chemical factory, cette attended illegal seminary classes run de Kraków’s cardinal archbishop, Prince Adam Sapieha. After narrowly escaping a Nazi roundup of able-bodied men et boys in 1944, Wojtyła spent thé rest de the war in the archbishop’s palace, disguised as a cleric. As pope, Wojtyła recalled that witnessing Nazi horrors, including thé murder de many priests, proved him thé real meaning ns the priesthood.

In 1945 thé Soviets replaced auto Germans oui occupiers ns Poland. In November 1946 Wojtyła to be ordained by Sapieha into thé Catholic priesthood. He chapitre to to speak his life mass, assisted par Figlewicz, in Wawel Cathedral’s crypt chapel amid the sarcophagi of Polish monarchs et heroes, including those who had defended denchères freedom and European Christendom. Cette then began two years ns study in Rome, where he completed his tons doctorate, année examination du the theology ns St. Homme of the Cross. Assigned venir Kraków’s St. Florian’s parish in 1949, hey studied, wrote, et lectured on philosophy and social et sexual ethics. During the prochain decade cette completed a lundi doctorate, teach theology et ethics at auto Jagiellonian University, and eventually to be appointed to a complete professorship at auto Catholic University du Lublin.

The young priest wrote poetry, released anonymously, nous a variety ns religious, social, et personal themes. Cette also became thé spiritual leader and mentor de a circle ns young adult friend whom he joined on kayaking et camping trips. Together, they celebrated mass in thé open at a time when unapproved worship outside of churches was forbidden by the communist regime. Experiences through these friends added to thé ideas in his first livre of nonfiction, Love and Responsibility (1960), année exploration ns the number of graces available in conjugal sexual relationships. Auto work was thought about radical par those that held thé traditional church see that sex to be solely for the purpose ns procreation.

Church leaders were impressed passant par Wojtyła’s ability à operate a dynamic pastorate despite communist restrictions. In 1958 Pope Pius XII appointed him année auxiliary bishop ns Kraków. At the lundi Vatican board of directors (1962–65) Wojtyła soja distinguished himself that halfway through the council, in December 1963, Pope paul VI called him archbishop du Kraków.

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The lundi Vatican Council presented Wojtyła to issues including thé role of the laity, auto church’s situation with other religions, and its relations with thé secular world. After the council’s conclusion in 1965, Wojtyła was appointed à Pope paul VI’s frais for thé Study du Problems of the Family, Population, et Birth Rate. His work shows up to oui influenced Humanae vitae (1968; “Of person Life”), paul VI’s encyclical rejecting man-made contraception, which became one of the church’s most ignored teachings. Part bishops also disagreed v it, saying privately that, on this issue, Wojtyła may have made simple theological mistakes.