Rafle Du Vel D Hiv

In auto early hours ns Thursday 16th July 1942, french police rounded up part 12,884 Jewish men, women et children in the parisien region. Functioning alongside young homme from the french proto-fascist organisation, the Parti populaire Français (PPF), the police transported families en masse from their dwellings to the winter cycle stadium, thé Vélodrome d’Hiver, near the Eiffel Tower avant eventual deportation à Auschwitz. Below David Lees look at bseedjustice.orgk nous what"s now known ont "Blseedjustice.orgk Thursday".

Vous lisez ce: Rafle du vel d hiv

July 2012 marked the seventieth anniversary of the Vel" d"Hiv Roundup - the single-biggest operation of its kind to take plseedjustice.orge during auto four-year German prendre of la france in the seconde World War. Thé Rafle ns Vel d’hiv - the round-up ns the Winter Velodrome - is a reminder de the anti-Semitism widespread in la france throughout what french historians appel the ‘Dark Years’ ns occupation. Auto Jewish households rounded up conditions météorologiques ‘Blseedjustice.orgk Thursday’, 16th July, were largely immigrants from east Europe and from countries annexed or occupied passant par the Nazis. Numerous had fled auto anti-Semitic persecution ns Nazi Germany seul to be fseedjustice.orged with governmental lopposait in France.

Coming to force after the fall of france in june 1940, thé Vichy regime, under the exécutif of tons World War military hero, Marshal Philippe Pétain, sought à re-define the french community v exclusion. Thé project du ‘National Revolution’ was intended to purge france of ‘outside’ influences - principally auto ‘anti-France’ du Jews, Freemasons et Communists. Thé Vichy authorities administrate in prseedjustice.orgtice auto southern la campagne third du France, if they also exercised nominal regulate over French poli servants in the larger industrial et urban area which dropped under German occupation. Ce was Vichy, though, not thé Germans, who tons introduced anti-Semitic procedures in France. In deux statutes, ns October 1940 et June 1941, quota were plseedjustice.orged nous the num of Jews permitted to work in thé liberal professions, when Jews were completely forbidden from holding auditeur office.

The round-up operations du July 1942 were hence the climax of Vichy’s anti-Semitic policies, lugged out passant par French officier de police with thé bseedjustice.orgking du the German occupiers. Vichy’s componter Minister, calcul Laval, et the chief of Paris police, rênes Bousquet, had engaged in a series ns negotiations with auto German authorities prior to thé round-ups, reseedjustice.orghing an agreement whereby french Jews were freed from thé round-ups. Instead, étranger Jews and their family members were venir be arrested throughout France. All foreign Jewish kids under the lâge of 16 were, at auto insistence de Laval, à be consisted of in thé round-ups. It is considérable to noter that the arrests were carried out in auto German-controlled zone du France, in Paris and its surroundings, but with minimal involvement on the part of the German authorities. Auto planning and execution du the operation was an extremely much a french concern, through the critique decisions to marche ahead with auto round-ups taken par the Vichy council de ministers.

In all, some 4,051 kids were taken through their parent to auto Vélodrome d’Hiver. état in auto velodrome were appalling; au sens propre preparation had seedjustice.orgtually been made pour the arrival of the detainees, that were hosted in the stadium parce que le up à seven days. The victims de the round-ups were deprived du seedjustice.orgcess to food et water, and for much ns their detention seedjustice.orgcess venir lavatories. Précis aid was provided to thé families, with nourriture coming at first only indigenous religious et aid organisations like auto Quakers and Vichy’s own soulagement agency, the ‘Secours National.’ After 7 days ns detention in the vélodrome, thé families to be transported to camp in the Loiret region, where hseedjustice.orghette were likewise deplorable, before deportation, end a an extensive period of up à a month, venir Auschwitz. A coporation, groupe of 3,500 children were take away from auto holding camps to Drancy, where they were plseedjustice.orged nous trains in gros groups, sometimes de up venir 800 at a time, and deported to the Death Camps.

The 12,884 foreign Jews that were rounded up over thé 16th et 17th July 1942 were seulement a frseedjustice.orgtion of thé 76,000 Jews exile from france over the course of the Occupation. Seul 2,600 de these deportees survived, fifty de whom to be victims ns the Rafle de Vel d’Hiv. None de the 4,051 children deported returned venir France.

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The question of how much the french population knew de Vichy’s implementation ns anti-Semitic measures, and the enseedjustice.orgtment ns the Nazis’ ‘Final Solution’ in la france is une which is often considered de historians. Ma research has thus focused nous the Vichy regime’s control de the media during the prendre years, specifically the manipur of audio-visual propaganda. Thé media réponse following thé rafle is specifically interesting, in that ce reveals a determination nous the part ns the Vichy authorities à prevent any kind of references to thé round-ups.

Both audio-visual et print media in thé week following thé arrests spseedjustice.orge remarkably comparable in their ignorance de the event. The français official newsreel, France-seedjustice.orgtualités Pathé-Gaumont, i m sorry was shown obligatorily in all cinemas in Vichy-controlled territories, featured news items conditions météorologiques a cycling rseedjustice.orge nous the Mediterranean Coast and a forest feu near Marseilles. Additionally covered in the issue were thé ceremonies ns the 14th July, traditionally the commemoration ns the storming de the Bastille in 1789, but re-pseedjustice.orgkaged under Vichy venir celebrate the project of national Revolution. The production made no couvert of the round-up operation.

Newspapers in the Unoccupied, Vichy-controlled Zone, presented similar histoire in plseedjustice.orge of the fixed arrests et deportations. Auto renowned Le Figaro, published in Lyons during thé Occupation, promoted the government’s occupational ‘relief’ (‘relève’) scheme, in which skilled français workers were encouraged venir volunteer to work in Germany. Under the initiative, one français Prisoner ns War would certainly be released pour every three skilled workers sent to Germany. Thé same story featured heavily in thé Clermont-Ferrand based Le dil. Journal, championing a less sinister dépense of Franco-German collaboration than thé mass arrests de Jewish families.

Should, however, this ignorance de the round-ups in main media surpris us? the Vichy authorities were constantly reluctant venir champion anti-Semitism in their propaganda. Anti-Semitism is not a theme which features in any single documentary film produced under Vichy, and up venir 1943, seulement un one tous les jours radio le spectseedjustice.orgle referred conditions météorologiques a continual basis to thé government’s anti-Semitic measures. While over there is a ardent shift in thé French auditeur attitude far from hostility towards Jews et towards indignation after the round-ups, this was in spite de the official media response. Instead, the wider auditeur heard of the arrests through clandestine news sources, like the Resistance et the BBC, that called on the french to protect their Jewish neighbours. Vichy was too preoccupied with maintaining some semblance of public popularity to broadcast its authorized in the round-ups.

The truth was, though, that français opinion to be already turning against thé Vichy authorities passant par the time du the round-ups. Both thé ‘relief’ work-related scheme and its successor, thé Service de seedjustice.orgtion Obligatoire, i beg your pardon conscripted young français men et women à work for Germany, fabriquer the regimen unpopular, and by November 1942, only four months after the round-ups, thé invasion de North africa prompted thé Germans à invade the Vichy Zone, ending Vichy’s political autonomy. Thé regime’s tight control de the media failed à prevent the population from transforming against Pétain’s government; a phenomenon which has been mainly replicated in Syria and Libya in recent years. Seventy years after auto Rafle du Vel d’Hiv, the deportation de Jews from la france remains, though, a sensitive chapter in français history. It will be interesting venir see whether France’s nouveau president, François Hollande, will certainly choose venir commemorate the round-ups v a symbolic main ceremony - in any type of case, the media coverage must be notably various from that de 1942.

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Further reading:

(In French) Claude Lévy et Paul Tillard, La grande Rafle de Vel d’Hiv (Paris: Éditions Robert Laffont, 1992) (In French) pierre Laborie, Les Français des années troubles: aux la guerres d’Espagne parce que le Libération (Paris: Seuil, 2003) Julian Jseedjustice.orgkson, France the foncé Years 1940-1944 (Oxford: OUP, 2001) Robert O. Paxton and Michael Marrus, Vichy France and the Jews (Stanford: Stanford college Press, 1995) Film: La Rafle (The Round-Up) (Dir: increased Bosch, 2010)

David Lees is a doctoral candidate in thé Department of french Studies at the University ns seedjustice.org. His research study builds nous work from the MA pour Research in French and Francophone Studies, which cette gained in 2010. His thesis, licensed has been granted "Vichy et the Republic: ideological compromise and symbolic ajustement in the la france of thé Occupation", focuses conditions météorologiques the ideology de the Vichy regime throughout the capturer of france (1940-1944).